Politik

Ancaman Terhadap Negara Makin Beragam

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BOGOR, (LEI/Antara) – Menteri Koordinator Bidang Politik Hukum dan Keamanan Republik Indonesia, Jenderal TNI (Purn) Wiranto mengatakan, Indonesia harus memperkuat pertahanan keamanannya, karena ancaman terhadap negara saat ini sudah berubah dan beragam.

“Di era globalisasi saat ini, ancaman terhadap negara sudah semakin beragam, pertahanan semesta menjadi upaya pemerintah untuk meningkatkan keamanan nasional,” kata Wiranto dalam kuliah umumnya di Universitas Pertahanan Indonesia (Unhan) Sentul, Kabupaten Bogor, Jawa Barat, Rabu.

Wiranto memberikan kuliah umum dihadapan ratusan mahasiswa dan dosen Unhan dengan tema “Bela Negara dan Keamanan Nasional Untuk Keselamatan Bangsa”.

Menurut Politisi Partai Hanura ini, perkembangan teknologi saat ini membuat masyarakat semakin kritis, melalui penggunaan internet. Kondisi tersebut perlu diwaspadai, karena pola ancaman juga ikut berubah seiring perubahan zaman.

Ia mengatakan pada saat menjabat sebagai Menkopolkam di era Presiden Soeharto, situasi keamanan di negara berbeda dengan era sekarang saat dirinya menjabat sebagai Makopolhukam.

“Ada perbedaan indikator, contohnya pengguna handphone di Indonesia dulu hanya 23 juta, tapi sekarang ada 340 juta. Padahal jumlah penduduk hanya 230 juta jiwa,” katanya.

Menurut dia, perkembangan teknologi di masyarakat membuat tugas Menkopolhukam menjadi lenih banyak, karena urusan politik, hukum dan keamanan berhubungan langsung dengan individu manusia.

Fenomena saat ini, lanjutnya, media sosial yang bebas digunakan membuatnya sulit dilacak.

Wiranto menyebutkan, dalam konstelasi global, setiap negara melakukan kerja sama dengan negara lain, baik secara bilateral, multilateral dan konteks lainnya.

“Secara formal setiap negara melakukan kerja sama, tapi apakah kerja sama itu tulus dan total,” katanya.

Presiden Joko Widodo, lanjutnya, dalam pertemuan tingkat ASEAN menyampaikan walau secara formal mereka menjalin kerja sama, tetapi setiap negara saling bersaing untuk mengamankan dan melindungi warga negaranya.

“Hubungan antar negara esensinya adalah persaingan. Negara harus melihat ancaman itu ada, tidak ada yang tidak ancaman. Ancaman terhadap negara ditentukan banyak faktor, banyak jurusan yang mengancam keselamatan negara,” katanya.

Lebih lanjut ia mengatakan, hakekat ketika ancaman datang, negara sudah bertindak melakukan operasi intelijen, lalu mengantisipasi dengan operasi Yuda.

Dikatakannya, sistem pertahanan Indonesia harus berubah semakin kuat. Belajar dari pengalaman perang melawan penjajahan, saat awal terbentuknya TNI, banyak warga yang ikut berperang tetapi tidak dapat tertampung sebagai tentara nasional karena terbatasnya sarana prasarana.

Solusi yang dilakukan, lanjutnya, dengan memanfaatkan peninggalan Belanda. Dan hingga kini banyak di antara markas TNI menempati bangunan peninggalan VOC.

Namun, lanjutnya, strategi VOC membangun benteng-benteng bukan untuk pertahanan, tetapi untuk urusan dagang. Benteng dan gedung pertahanan dibangun di lokasi perkebunan dan pabrik.

Menurut Wiranto, memperkuat pertahanan harus dilakukan dari dalam dan juga ke luar. Karena ancaman sudah berubah dinamis, invasi tidak lagi dari satu negara ke negara lain.

Invasi itu tidak mahal tapi mempertahankan kependudukan atas satu wilayah itu yang mahal. Jadi tidak efisien lagi, maka bentuk perang secara sudah berbeda. Ada ‘proxy war’, dari ancaman tradisional menjadi perang konservatif dan non konservatif.

“Ancaman sudah bergama, kapitalisme, terorisme, ilegal loging, narkoba, ini ancaman baru yang cakupannya luas dan langsung menyerang penduduk kita. Belum lagi hoax,” katanya.

Wiranto mengingatkan, perlu dibuat pertahanan yang statis. Konsep pertahanan harus berubah dari sekarang. Perubahan jangan dijadikan tabu atau sesuatu yang haram untuk dilakukan.

“Perubahan itu perlu, untuk mengubah konsep pertahanan yang tertinggal menjadi yang baru,” katanya.

Ia menyampaikan, ketika Presiden Joko Widodo mencanangkan pembangunan dari pinggiran, menunjukkan pemerintah telah menyadari ancaman yang sudah berubah, maka sistem pertahanan juga perlu diperkuat keluar.

“Seharusnya Indonesia dengan batas wilayah terpanjang kedua di dunia setelah Kanada, harus lebih kuat menjaga pertahanan wilayah perbatasan. Jangan seperti saat ini wilayah perbatasan kita telanjang,” katanya.

Wiranto menambahkan, sistem pertahanan wilayah perbatasan jangan hanya kuat di dalam tetapi perlu diperkuat hingga bagian terluar. Seperti Allah menciptakan segala sesuatu memiliki perlindungan, sepertu telur, durian dan manggis.

“Begitupun Indonesia harus kuat di dalam dan luar. Ada konsep baru pertahanan dengan penataan kembali gelar pasukan digabungkan dengan pembangunan nasional. Karena ada perubahan ancaman yang multi nasional. Maka pertahanan yang sudah digagas, adalah pertahanan semesta,” katanya.

Kata kunci
Perlihatkan Lebih

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