Hukum

Ketua APHA Dr. Laksanto Utomo: Pembangunan Hukum Gagal Jika Tak Serap Hukum Adat

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JAKARTA, LEI – Pembangunanan hukum di Indonesia akan menghadapi kegagalan jika dalam penyusunan dan penerapannya lebih mengutamakan literatur hukum Barat, sementara hukum adat yang masih kental berlaku di berbagai daerah dibaikan oleh para praktisi hukum itu sendiri.

Ketua Asosiasi Pengajar Hukum Adat (APHA) Indonesia, Dr. Laksanto Utomo dalam perbincangan dengan wartawan di Jakarta, Kamis (06/9/2018) mengemukakan beberapa perspektif mengenai arti pentingnya hukum adat.

Pemerintah, lanjutnya, harus menyadari bahwa kegagalan pembangunan hukum nasional antara lain karena dalam penyusunan pasal-pasal dalam membuat peraturan perundang-undangan mengabaikan keberadaan hukum adat.

“Jika kita amati, eksistensi hukum adat masih hidup dan berkembang di beberapa komunitas masyarakat adat, namun tampaknya secara perlahan-lahan nilai-nilai hukum adat itu tidak dijadikan pijakan oleh para penyusun dan pelaksana undang-undang. Mereka lebih nyaman menggunakan literaturan hukum Barat,” kata Laksanto.

Ia menjelaskan, bangsa Indonesia yang terkenal dengan budaya gotong royong dan menjunjung tinggi adat para leluhur tidak dapat disamakan dengan bangsa Barat yang semata-mata mengutamakan kekuatan logika akal.

“Sistem politik yang dianut di Barat adalah demokrasi yang siap kalah dan siap menang karena konsep gotong-royong dan tepo seliro tidak banyak dikenal. Sementara di Indonesia, orang boleh menang, tetapi juga tidak boleh jumawa,” katanya sambil mengaitkan dengan Pilpres 2019 agar siapa pun yang menang nanti tidak boleh bersikap “mentang-mentang”.

Penggunaan hukum Barat selama ini tanpa terasa makin menjauhkan hukum nasional dari jiwa dan budaya bangsa. Salah satu implikasinya adalah masyarakat Indonesia yang berwatak komunal dan mengedepankan musyawarah dalam menyelesaikan sengketa berubah menjadi “manusia baru,” yakni berwatak individual dan sering saling lapor melaporkan.

“Inilah yang saya sebut sebagai bagian dari kegagalan dalam pembangunan hukum nasional,” kata Ketua APHA Indonesia itu.

Menurut Laksanto, pernyataan tentang arti penting hukum adat itu juga disampaikannya pada pembukaan seminar bertema “Kontribusi Hukum Adat Dalam Pembangunan Hukum Nasional” di Kampus Universitas Udayana (UNUD) Denpasar Bali pada 4 September lalu.

Seminar itu sendiri menampikan para pembicara seperti Prof. Dr. I Made Arya Utama (Dekan dan Guru besar FH UNUD), Dr. Ahmad Jayus (Ketua Komisi Yudisial RI), Prof. Dr. Catharina Dewi Wulandari (Guru Besar FH Universitas Parahiyangan Bandung) dan Dr. Caritas Woro Murdiati (pengajar di FH Unika Atmajaya Yogyakarta).

Menurut Laksanto, Prof. Dr. Chatarina Dewi pada seminar nasional di Kampus UNUD antara lain mengemukakan, hukum warisan kolonial sesunguhnya sudah usang. Karena itu harus segera ditinggalkan oleh bangsa Indonesia, terutama karena tidak sesuai dengan kebiasaan yang ada tengah-tengah masyarakat.

Pembangunan hukum dalam bidang perdata dan ekonomi dalam rangka mewujudkan kesejahteraan masyarakat seperti yang dicita-citakan para pendiri bangsa akan sulit diwujudkan jika para perancang undang-undang itu mengabaikan eksistensi hukum adat.

Oleh karena itu, Chatarina berpendapat, pembangunan hukum nasional sebaiknya tetap memperhatikan kemajemukan masyarakat guna meningkatkan kepastian dan perlindungan hukum yang pada akhirnya akan mampu meningkatkan kemakmuran dan kesejateraan masyaraat itu sendiri.

Terjadinya kesenjangan ekonomi yang kian hari terus melebar, antara lain karena pijakan hukum atau penyusunan peraturan perundang-undangan tidak berpedoman pada hukum adat, tetapi menggunakan literatur Barat. Kesalahan itulah yang segera harus diluruskan, dan belum terlambat.

Ia lebih lanjut menyarankan agar pemerintah sebaiknya berusaha meningkatkan keunggulan bersaing nasional (National competitive advantage) dengan mengandalkan pembangunan perangkat hukum perdata dan ekonomi yang berbasis hukum adat sebagai wujud kesadaran hukum masyarakat.

“Itulah cita-cita para pendiri negeri ini yang kemerdekaannya diproklamasikan tahun 1945,” kata Chatarina sebagaimana dikutip Laksanto.
Ketua Asosiasi Pengajar Hukum Adat (APHA) Indonesia, Dr. Laksanto Utomo

(//www.okenews.com)

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