HEADLINESHukumOpini

Kewenangan Mahkamah Konstitusi Dalam Menangani Pengaduan Konstitusional (Constitutional Complaint)

Release Constitutional Review

BTN iklan

Oleh: Victor Tandiasa, SH, MH

Dimilikinya Kewenangan memeriksa an memutus Pengaduan Konstitusional (constitutional Complaint) melalui pintu Pengujian Undang-undang di Mahkamah Konstitusi yang merupakan satu kewenangan yang tertinggal saat pembentuk UU membentuk UU MK RI, Adalah kerinduan kita bersama para penggiat Konstitusi.

Sebagaimana kita ketahui bersama amanat Pasal 28I ayat (4) UUD 1945 menyatakan : “Perlindungan, pemajuan, penegakan, dan pemenuhan hak asasi manusia adalah tanggung jawab Negara, terutama pemerintah”. Oleh karenanya Negara membentuk Mahkamah Konstitusi sebagai salah satu unsur utama Negara dalam menjalankan tanggung jawabnya untuk melindungi, memajukan, menegakan dan memenuhi hak asasi manusia, memiliki fungsi dan tugasnya sebagai Pelindung hak-hak konstitusional warga Negara (The Protector of citizen’s constitutional rights) dan Pelindung hak-hak asasi manusia (the protector of human rights).

Inilah yang menjadi dasar konstitusional bagi Mahkamah Konstitusi dalam melaksanakan tugas tanggung jawabnya. Hal demikian juga dikemukakan oleh I.D.G Palguna, mengatakan : “bahwa Pengaduan Konstitusional – sebagai mekanisme perlindungan hak konstitusional melalui pengadilan – sesungguhnya merupakan kebutuhan bagi setiap Negara yang hendak sunggu-sungguh menjelmakan ajaran negara hukum dalam praktik. Pengaduan Konstitusional adalah salah satu mekanisme pertahanan diri bagi warga Negara untuk mempertahankan hak konstitusionalnya melalui pengadilan terhadap pelaksanaan kekuasaan Negara. Mahkamah Konstitusi – atau pengadilan dengan nama lain yang diberi fungsi sebagai mahkamah konstitusi – memegang peran kunci dalam hal ini. Sebab, melalui kewenangan yang ada padanya untuk memutus perkara pengaduan konstitusional, mahkamah konstitusi bukan sekedar mengawal konstitusi tetapi juga sekaligus menjadi pelindung hak-hak konstitusional.” (I Dewa Gede Palguna, Pengaduan Konstitusional (Constitutional Complaint) Upaya Hukum Terhadap Pelanggaran Hak-Hak Konstitusional Warga Negara, Sinar Grafika, Jakarta, 2013, halaman. 186-187).

sejalan dengan apa yang dikatakan I.D.G Palguna, terlihat pula indikasi pemberian kewenangan bagi Mahkamah Konstitusi untuk dapat memeriksa dan memutus Pengaduan Konstitusional (Constitutional Complaint) Pembentuk undang-undang dalam ketentuan Pasal 51 ayat (1) huruf a, yang menyatakan : “Pemohon adalah pihak yang menganggap hak dan/atau kewenangan konstitusionalnya dirugikan oleh berlakunya undang-undang, yaitu : a. perseorangan warga Negara Indonesia”. Artinya, warga Negara yang dapat menjadi pemohon adalah pihak yang menganggap hak konstitusionalnya dirugikan oleh berlakunya undang-undang. diantaranya adanya suatu tindakan atas berlakunya suatu undang-undang yang melanggar, merugikan hak konstitusional setiap warga Negara.

Tidak hanya I.D.G. Palguna, terhadap kemungkinan Mahkamah Konstitusi memeriksa dan memutus Pengaduan Konstitusional melalui Pengajuan Permohonan Pengujian Undang-Undang oleh Pembentuk UU, Maruarar Siahaan mengatakan : “Dengan demikian jika terdapat tindakan, perbuatan atau aturan yang dikeluarkan oleh Public Authority yang melanggar hak-hak dasar warga negara baik yang bersifat substantif atau proseduril yang dilindungi oleh konstitusi, maka perbuatan atau tindakan dimaksud dapat dibawakan ke depan MK untuk diperiksa dan diputus apakah benar melanggar konstitusi. Keputusan atau perbuatan public authorityI tersebut meliputi putusan pejabat tata usaha negara dan peraturan perundang-undangan yang dibuat legislatif. Kewenangan ini, belum merupakan wewenang dari MK Indonesia. Akan tetapi dari prinsip konstitusi, konstitusionalisme dan rule of law, agaknya menjadi hal yang ganjil jika pembatasan kekuasaan melalui checks and balance dan perlindungan hak asasi manusia merupakan tugas MK, keluhan warga terhadap otoritas publik yang merugikannya karena melanggar ketentuan dalam Konstitusi yang menyangkut orang per orang yang bersangkutan bukan merupakan kewenangan MK. Karena jikalau uu tidak boleh melanggar konstitusi sebagai hukum tertinggi, maka sesungguhnya konstitusionalisme menuntut bahwa hal itu tidak hanya berlaku terhadap legislatif tetapi juga terhadap semua penyelenggara kekuasaan lainnya. Tampaknya ketika memberi standing pada perseorangan untuk menguji undang-undang yang merugikan hak konstitusional perorangan, maka boleh jadi terjadi salah paham tentang ruang lingkup perlindungan konstitusi yang diberikan oleh pengujian uu tersebut. Penggabungan kata hak dan/atau kewenangan konstitusional dalam Pasal 51 ayat (1) UU MK secara sama untuk empat jenis golongan pemohon pengujian uu, dalam praktek dan pengalaman hakim MK untuk merumuskan kerugian konstitusional berdasarkan hal yang digabungkan itu, seringkali menimbulkan keraguan, apakah yang dipunyai perorangan yang dapat dilanggar dan dirugikan oleh satu uu, sesungguhnya adalah hak konstitusional, dan bukan kewenangan konstitusional, dan yang tidak sepatutnya digabungkan secara bersama-sama dengan jenis kualifikasi pemohon lain.” (Maruarar Siahaan, “Undang-Undang Dasar 1945, Konstitusi yang Hidup”, Penerbit: Sekretariat Jenderal dan Kepaniteraan Mahkamah Konstitusi, Jakarta, 2008, halaman 32-33)

Hal tersebut pun dikemukakan Maruarar Siahaan saat menjadi Hakim Konstitusi, melalui dissenting opinionnya dalam Putusan Mahkamah Konstitusi No. 001/P-IV/2006, yang menyatakan “… Pasal 24C UUD 1945 dan Pasal 10 ayat (1) UU No. 24/2003 juncto Pasal 51 ayat (1) UU 24/2003, yang memberi legal standing pada perorangan mengajukan pengujian konstitusionalitas UU, sesungguhnya harus ditafsir termasuk pengujian perbuatan lembaga Negara yang menjalankan UU yang melanggar hak dasar yang kemudian menimbulkan kerugian Konstitusi bagi perorangan dan masyarakat, karena legal standing bagi perorangan untuk menguji UU, tidak banyak ditemukan dalam UUD maupun UU tentang MK di banyak Negara di dunia, tapi memberikan kepada perseorangan legal standing untuk menggugat pelanggaran hak-hak dasar (basic rights) yang diatur Konstitusi, yang dikeluhkan telah dilakukan dalam lembaga-lembaga negara baik eksekutif, legislatif maupun judikatif…” ( vide halaman 79 Putusan Nomor 001/PUU-IV/2006);

Oleh karenanya, saya Viktor Santoso Tandiasa selaku “Constitutional Lawyer” sedang mengupayakan agar kerinduan tersebut dapat terwujud melalui upaya Mengajukan Permohoann Uji Materiil UU Kekuasaan Kehakiman dan UU Mahkamah Konstitusi.

Perlu dipahami bahwa ketentuan Norma Pasal 10 ayat (1) huruf a UU MKRI dan Ketentuan Norma Pasal 29 ayat (1) huruf a UU Kekuasaan Kehakiman merupakan ketentuan norma “Original” yang secara limitatif diambil dari ketentuan Norma Pasal 24C ayat (1) UUD 1945, sehingga tidak mungkin dilakukan pemaknaan terhadap ketentuan norma tersebut. Apabila ketentuan tersebut diberikan pemaknaan maka hal tersebut akan merubah ketentuan norma “Original” Pasal 24C ayat (1) UUD 1945. Oleh karenanya, Conditionally Unconstitutional hanya dapat diletakan dalam Penjelasan Pasal dari ketentuan norma Pasal 10 ayat (1) huruf a UU MKRI dan Ketentuan Norma Pasal 29 ayat (1) huruf a UU Kekuasaan Kehakiman.

Namun dengan tidak dibaginya bagian Penjelasan Pasal 10 ayat (1) Pasca diubahnya UU No. 24 Tahun 2003 tentang Mahkamah Konstitusi dengan UU No. 8 Tahun 2011 tentang Perubahan Atas UU No. 24 Tahun 2003. Dimana dalam bagian Penjelasan Pasal 10 ayat (1) berisi tentang Penjelasan sifat Putusan Mahkamah Konstitusi, sehingga sulit untuk mengutip frasa yang akan menjadi pemaknaan atas ketentuan Norma Pasal 10 ayat (1) huruf a, maka pemaknaan tersebut diletakan pada ketentuan norma Penjelasan Pasal 29 ayat (1) huruf a UU Kekuasaan Kehakiman, dan apabila Mahkamah Konstitusi mengabulkan Permohonan PARA PEMOHON, maka secara mutatis mutandis berlaku kepada Penjelasan Pasal 10 ayat (1) huruf a UU MKRI.

Kata kunci
Perlihatkan Lebih

3.401 Komentar

  1. The author kindly provided me with the raw data allowing me to reanalyze the results within his focus. I came up with the results shown in Figure 3A which may be advantageously compared with Figure 3 of the article.
    Successful English is my classroom. Every good teacher has classroom rules to make sure that everything that happens in the classroom contributes to the students’ learning. This comment policy is my set of rules for conversations – or comments – here at Successful English. I want every visitor to have a good experience and all of our conversations to be as helpful as possible.

  2. With respect to the statistical analyses, I have some comments. I would like to point out that ANOVA, the statistical treatment used to compare the incidence of Latin/Greek words in English against Portuguese texts, is not appropriate for the data analyzed.
    The reason is very simple: the sample space of a normal distribution is the whole real set of numbers extending from −∞ to +∞. In contrast, the sample space of a proportion π extends from zero to one. Another point is that the beta distribution is symmetric only when (π = ½ – beta). The beta distribution,

  3. Hey, how’s it going?

    I want to pass along some very important news that everyone needs to hear!

    In December of 2017, Donald Trump made history by recognizing Jerusalem as the capital of Israel. Why is this big news? Because by this the Jewish people of Israel are now able to press forward in bringing about the Third Temple prophesied in the Bible.

    Jewish Rabbis have publicly announced that their Messiah will be revealed in the coming years who will be a leader and spiritual guide to all nations, gathering all religions under the worship of one God.

    Biblical prophecy tells us that this Jewish Messiah who will take the stage will be the antichrist “who opposes and exalts himself above all that is called God or that is worshiped, so that he sits as God in the temple of God, showing himself that he is God” (2 Thessalonians 2:4). For a time he will bring about a false peace, but “Therefore when you see the ‘abomination of desolation,’ spoken of by Daniel the prophet, standing in the holy place (Matthew 24:15)…then there will be great tribulation, such as has not been since the beginning of the world until this time, no, nor ever shall be” (Matthew 24:21).

    More importantly, the power that runs the world wants to put a RFID microchip in our body making us total slaves to them. This chip matches perfectly with the Mark of the Beast in the Bible, more specifically in Revelation 13:16-18:

    “He causes all, both small and great, rich and poor, free and slave, to receive a mark on their right hand or on their foreheads, and that no one may buy or sell except one who has the mark or the name of the beast, or the number of his name.

    Here is wisdom. Let him who has understanding calculate the number of the beast, for it is the number of a man: His number is 666.”

    Referring to the last days, this could only be speaking of a cashless society, which we have yet to see, but are heading towards. Otherwise, we could still buy or sell without the mark amongst others if physical money was still currency. This Mark couldn’t be spiritual because the word references two different physical locations. If it was spiritual it would just say in the forehead. RFID microchip implant technology will be the future of a one world cashless society containing digital currency. It will be implanted in the right-hand or the forehead, and we cannot buy or sell without it. Revelation 13:11-18 tells us that a false prophet will arise on the world scene doing miracles before men, deceiving them to receive this Mark. Do not be deceived! We must grow strong in Jesus. AT ALL COSTS, DO NOT TAKE IT!

    “Then a third angel followed them, saying with a loud voice, “If anyone worships the beast and his image, and receives his mark on his forehead or on his hand, he himself shall also drink of the wine of the wrath of God, which is poured out full strength into the cup of His indignation. He shall be tormented with fire and brimstone in the presence of the holy angels and in the presence of the Lamb. And the smoke of their torment ascends forever and ever; and they have no rest day or night, who worship the beast and his image, and whoever receives the mark of his name” (Revelation 14:9-11).

    People have been saying the end is coming for many years, but we needed two key things. One, the Third Temple, and two, the technology for a cashless society to fulfill the prophecy of the Mark of the Beast.

    Visit http://WWW.BIBLEFREEDOM.COM to see proof for these things and why the Bible truly is the word of God!

    If you haven’t already, it is time to seek God with all your heart. Jesus loves you more than you could imagine. He wants to have a relationship with you and redeem you from your sins. Turn to Him and repent while there is still hope! This is forever…God bless!

    “EITHER HUMAN INTELLIGENCE ULTIMATELY OWES ITS ORIGIN TO MINDLESS MATTER OR THERE IS A CREATOR…” – JOHN LENNOX

    We all know God exists. Why? Because without Him, we couldn’t prove anything at all. Do we live our lives as if we cannot know anything? No. So why is God necessary? In order to know anything for certain, you would have to know everything, or have revelation from somebody who does. Who is capable of knowing everything? God. So to know anything, you would have to be God, or know God.

    A worldview without God cannot account for the uniformity and intelligibility of nature. And why is it that we can even reason that God is the best explanation for this if there is no God? We are given reason to know or reject God, but never to know that He does not exist.

    It has been calculated by Roger Penrose that the odds of the initial conditions for the big bang to produce the universe that we see to be a number so big, that we could put a zero on every particle in the universe, and even that would not be enough to use every zero. What are the odds that God created the universe? Odds are no such thing. Who of you would gamble your life on one coin flip?

    Is there evidence that the Bible is the truth? Yes. Did you know that the creation accounts listed in the book of Genesis are not only all correct, but are also in the correct chronological order? That the Bible doesn’t say the Earth was formed in six 24-hour days but rather six long but finite periods of time? That the Bible makes 10 times more creation claims than all major “holy” books combined with no contradictions, while these other books have errors in them? The Bible stood alone by concurring with the big bang saying, “In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth” (Genesis 1:1); and says our universe is expanding, thousands of years before scientists discovered these things. Watch a potential life-changing video on the front page of http://WWW.BIBLEFREEDOM.COM with Astronomer(PhD) Hugh Ross explaining all these facts based on published scientific data. He has authored many books, backed even by atheist scientists.

    Jesus fulfilled more than 300 Messianic prophecies concerning His birth place, details of His life, His mission, His nature, His death, and His resurrection. He came to pay a debt that we could not, to be our legal justifier to reconcile us back to a Holy God; only if we are willing to receive Him: “For the wages of sin is death, but the gift of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord” (Romans 6:23).

    God so loved the world that He gave us His only begotten son, so that whoever believes in Him, through faith, shall not perish, but have everlasting life. Jesus says if we wish to enter into life to keep the commands! The two greatest commands are to love God with all your heart, soul, strength, and mind; and your neighbor as yourself. All the law hang on these commands. We must be born of and lead by the Holy Spirit, to be called children of God, to inherit the kingdom. If we are willing to humble ourselves in prayer to Jesus, to confess and forsake our sins, He is willing to give the Holy Spirit to those who keep asking of Him; giving us a new heart, leading us into all truth!

    Jesus came to free us from the bondage of sin. The everlasting fire was prepared for the devil and his angels due to disobedience to God’s law. If we do the same, what makes us any different than the devil? Jesus says unless we repent, we shall perish. We must walk in the Spirit, producing fruits of love and forgiveness, so we may not fulfill the lusts of the flesh being hatred, fornication, drunkenness and the like. Whoever practices such things will not inherit the kingdom (Galatians 5:16-26). If we sin, we may come before Jesus to ask for forgiveness (1 John 2:1-2). Evil thoughts are not sins, but rather temptations. It is not until these thoughts conceive and give birth by our hearts desire that they become sin (James 1:12-15). When we sin, we become in the likeness of the devil’s image, for he who sins is of the devil (1 John 3:8); but if we obey Jesus, in the image of God. For without holiness, we shall not see the Lord (Hebrews 12:14).

    The oldest religion in the world is holiness (James 1:27). What religion did Adam and Eve follow before the fall? Jesus, Who became the last Adam, what religion does He follow? Is He not holy? He never told us to follow any religion or denomination but to deny ourselves, take up our cross daily, and follow Him (Luke 9:23). There are many false doctrines being taught leading people astray. This is why we need the Holy Spirit for discernment. Unlike religion, holiness cannot be created. It is given to us from above by the baptism of the Spirit. Jesus is more than a religion; He is about having a personal relationship with the Father. Start by reading the Gospel of Matthew, to hear the words of God, to know His character and commandments. Follow and obey Jesus, for He is the way, the truth, and the life!

Tinggalkan Balasan

Baca Lainnya

Close

Adblock Detected

Tolong matikan adblocker anda untuk tetap mendukung kami