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Praperadilan, Bentuk Perlawanan Balik Koruptor?

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JAKARTA, (LEI) – Upaya pemberantasan korupsi yang dilakukan oleh penegak hukum di Tanah Air, seperti Komisi Pemberantasan Korupsi, menghadapi jalan berliku nan terjal hingga harus menghadapi perlawanan balik para pelakunya. Benar-benar tidak semulus apa yang kita bayangkan.

Masih segar dalam ingatan publik kasus penyiraman air keras yang menimpa salah seorang penyidik Komisi Pemberantasan Korupsi (KPK) Novel Baswedan yang hingga kini masih samar siapa pelakunya.

Belum lagi beragam teror yang dihadapi penyidik KPK dalam mengungkap suatu kasus mulai dari penggembosan ban kendaraan, kriminalisasi, intimidasi, guna-guna sampai perlawanan melalui jalur formal dan legal.

Semua rangkaian teror tersebut mengindikasikan terjadi perlawanan balik dari para pelaku korupsi kepada aparat penegak hukum. Salah satu bentuk perlawanan yang dilakukan pelaku korupsi yang dinilai cukup ampuh adalah gugatan praperadilan ke pengadilan sehingga dapat membatalkan status tersangka hingga menyebabkan bidikan KPK lolos dari jeratan hukum.

Memang praperadilan merupakan mekanisme yang diatur dalam Undang-Undang Nomor 8 tahun 1981 tentang Hukum Acara Pidana sebagai saluran legal bagi pihak-pihak yang merasa hak-hak dasarnya telah dilanggar, akibat tindakan yang dilakukan aparat penegak hukum melalui lembaga pengawasan horizontal yang dinamakan praperadilan.

Praperadilan bertujuan memberikan perlindungan hak asasi manusia bagi mereka yang terlibat perkara pidana pada tahap penyidikan dan penuntutan, sebagai alat kontrol terhadap penyidik dan penuntut umum dari upaya penyalahgunaan wewenang.

Dalam hal ini praperadilan bertujuan agar segala tindakan yang dilakukan aparat penegak hukum dalam pemeriksaan perkara pidana benar-benar sesuai aturan perundangan yang berlaku.

Pada April 2015 Mahkamah Konstitusi juga mengeluarkan putusan yang memperluas kewenangan praperadilan menjadi memeriksa dan memutus sah atau tidaknya upaya paksa penangkapan dan penahanan, serta memeriksa dan memutus sah atau tidaknya penetapan tersangka, penggeledahan, penyitaan, penangkapan, penahanan, penghentian penyidikan dan penghentian penuntutan.

Berdasarkan data yang dihimpun sejak 2011 terdapat sekitar 57 kasus korupsi yang perkaranya diajukan ke praperadilan dan enam kasus di antaranya dikabulkan oleh hakim.

Enam kasus tersebut antara lain dugaan korupsi rehabilitasi dan instalasi PDAM Makassar dengan tersangka Wali Kota Makassar Ilham Arief Sirajudin, dugaan penerimaan gratifikasi dengan tersangka Budi Gunawan dan dugaan korupsi pajak BCA dengan tersangka mantan Dirjen Pajak Hadi Poernomo.

Kemudian dugaan korupsi dana pendidikan luar sekolah dengan tersangka Marthen Dira Tome, dugaan korupsi sejumlah proyek di Nganjuk dengan tersangka Bupati Nganjuk Taufiqurahman dan yang teranyar dugaan korupsi KTP Elektronik dengan tersangka Ketua DPR Setya Novanto.

Dalam gugatan praperadilan Setya Novanto hakim tunggal Cepi Iskandar yang menangani perkara itu mengabulkan sebagian permohonan dengan alasan alat bukti untuk tersangka sebelumnya tidak dapat digunakan bagi tersangka lain jika tidak dilakukan pengumpulan bukti baru sesuai prosedur hukum acara pidana.

Hakim menilai alat bukti yang berasal dari penyidikan terhadap mantan pejabat Kementerian Dalam Negeri Irman dan Sugiharto yang telah divonis bersalah tidak bisa serta merta digunakan dalam perkara Setya Novanto.

Lebih lanjut hakim praperadilan juga menilai penetapan tersangka seharusnya menjadi akhir dari proses penyidikan dan bukan di awal. Hakim juga menyatakan dalam menetapkan Setya Novanto sebagai tersangka tidak terdapat cukup dua alat bukti yang sah.

Usai praperadilannya dikabulkan oleh hakim, KPK kembali menetapkan Setya Novanto sebagai tersangka dalam kasus yang sama dengan sebelumnya, dugaan korupsi proyek penerapan KTP elektronik 2011-2012.

Namun lagi-lagi Setya Novanto mengajukan praperadilan atas penetapannya sebagai tersangka untuk kedua kalinya ke Pengadilan Negeri Jakarta Selatan.

Tentu saja praperadilan yang kedua ini ditunggu-tunggu oleh publik untuk memastikan nasib ketua umum Partai Golkar tersebut apakah kembali bisa lolos atau malah kandas di tangan palu hakim.

Fenomena praperadilan menjadi tren setelah Hakim Sarpin Rizaldi menerima permohonan praperadilan Budi Gunawan yang seolah-olah menjadi titik balik praperadilan para tersangka korupsi di KPK.

Praktisi hukum Sudi Prayitno menilai praperadilan merupakan salah satu bentuk perlawanan balik pelaku korupsi yang prosedural dan diakomodasi dalam Kitab Undang-Undang Hukum Acara Pidana (KUHP).

“Praperadilan terbukti cukup ampuh untuk menghambat hingga menghentikan penyidikan perkara yang ditangani oleh KPK,” ujarnya.

Ia melihat meski praperadilan yang dikabulkan hakim sedikit dibandingkan yang ditolak namun dampaknya luar biasa karena yang menang adalah para tokoh penting di Tanah Air.

Menurutnya yang perlu menjadi pertanyaan adalah apakah hakim praperadilan berwenang membatalkan status seseorang yang sebelumnya telah ditetapkan sebagai tersangka.

“Kalau dibaca dalam pasal 77 KUHAP hanya diberikan kewenangan pada hakim praperadilan untuk menyatakan sah atau tidak sah,” ujarnya.

Ia mengatakan dalam pasal itu secara implisit menyatakan kewenangan hakim hanya menyatakan sah atau tidak sahnya penetapan status seseorang sebagai tersangka.

Sementara Pakar Hukum Pidana Universitas Indonesia Gandjar Laksmana Bonaprata, MH menilai hakim yang menangani gugatan praperadilan Setya Novanto telah melampaui kewenangan, dengan mengabulkan sebagian gugatan praperadilan yang diajukan Ketua Partai Golkar tersebut.

“Dalam putusannya hakim yang menangani gugatan praperadilan Novanto minta penyidikan dihentikan, ini merupakan perbuatan melawan hukum karena konteksnya telah melampaui kewenangannya,” kata dia.

Menurut Gandjar dalam gugatan praperadilan tersebut hakim juga tidak berwenang menguji validitas alat bukti penetapan Setya Novanto sebagai tersangka.

“Bahwa alat bukti itu bisa menunjukkan seseorang melakukan suatu tindakan pidana atau tidak merupakan materi pokok perkara,” katanya. Ia mengatakan yang penting dilakukan adalah ketika penyidik menyampaikan punya alat bukti keterangan saksi maka penyidik punya bukti meminta keterangan seseorang sebagai saksi.

“Seandainya penyidik punya alat bukti berupa surat maka cukup dibuktikan dengan pernah melakukan pemeriksaan atau penggeledahan dan menyita,” ujarnya.

Kemudian ia juga mengkritik pandangan hakim yang menyatakan alat bukti untuk suatu perkara tidak boleh digunakan untuk membuktikan perkara yang lain lagi.

“Sikap hakim yang menyatakan alat bukti tidak boleh digunakan untuk perkara lain merupakan kesesatan berpikir karena hukum acara bersifat logis sistematis,” ujarnya.

Ia menyatakan suatu alat bukti dapat digunakan untuk kasus yang lain sepanjang berasal dari sprindik atau surat perintah penyidikan yang sama. Pada sisi lain ia juga mengkritik pendapat hakim yang menyatakan penetapan tersangka harus dilakukan pada akhir penyidikan karena tidak satu pun manusia yang tahu kapan penyidikan akan berakhir.

“Kalau tersangka telah ditemukan dan ditetapkan pada umumnya penyidikan akan berakhir karena tujuan penyidikan adalah menemukan tersangka, oleh sebab itu penetapan tersangka tidak mesti diakhir karena tidak ada periodesasi penyidikan mana yang awal, tengah dan akhir,” kata dia.

Selanjutnya ia juga menilai hakim menggunakan terminologi yang unik dalam gugatan ini yaitu calon tersangka, padahal dalam proses hukum pidana tidak dikenal istilah itu.

“Kalau pun penyidik mampu membayangkan seseorang berpotensi jadi tersangka ia tetap tidak boleh disebut sebagai calon tersangka karena terjadi kesesatan berpikir seakan-akan seseorang ditargetkan jadi tersangka dan ini bertentangan dengan prinsip independensi penyidik,” ujar dia.

Terkait dengan diajukannya kembali praperadilan ia menilai jika kembali diterima hakim berarti KPK jatuh ke dalam lubang yang sama sebanyak dua kali.

“Namun saya yakin KPK sudah memelajari putusan yang dikeluarkan hakim Cepi,” katanya.

Sementara Guru Besar Hukum Pidana Unand Prof Elwi Danil mengatakan jika pada praperadilan yang kedua Setya Novanto gugatan Setya Novanto kembali diterima hakim, maka KPK dapat kembali menerbitkan kembali statusnya sebagai tersangka walaupun hal ini bisa menimbulkan ketidakpastian hukum.

“Memang manuver seperti ini menghabiskan energi bangsa karena pada akhirnya akan ditetapkan lagi tersangka,” ujar dia. Akan tetapi ia berpesan hal ini bisa menjadi catatan dalam politik hukum pidana ke depan. Di sisi lain penegak hukum baik polisi, jaksa hingga KPK harus lebih detail dan teliti dalam menetapkan status tersangka seseorang agar tidak mudah dibatalkan oleh proses praperadilan. [antara]

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